We answer your questions about choosing the right ink color and quality for signing a legal document. The most significant characteristic of signatures is that they are unique to every individual. For this reason, they are the standard method for accurately distinguishing between parties in a written agreement. While we have covered the specifics of signing legal contracts in previous posts, here is some additional information about choosing the right ink color and quality when signing important documents. Researchers have found evidence of signatures in written transactions in Jewish and Muslim cultures dating back to the 2nd century. In , the Statute of Frauds — written in England — stipulated that contracts must bear a signature. Since then, signatures have been the standard for validating agreements, a practice that would eventually be adopted in colonial America. During this time, an assortment of customs was used, in addition to signing with a signature, to formalize contracts.
The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability.
If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in
A Brief History of Document Signing. Researchers have found evidence of signatures in written transactions in Jewish and Muslim cultures dating.
India ink British English : Indian ink ;  also Chinese ink is a simple black or coloured ink once widely used for writing and printing and now more commonly used for drawing and outlining, especially when inking comic books and comic strips. India ink is also used in medical applications. Basic India ink is composed of a variety of fine soot , known as lampblack , combined with water to form a liquid.
No binder material is necessary: [ citation needed ] the carbon molecules are in colloidal suspension and form a waterproof layer after drying. A binding agent such as gelatin or, more commonly, shellac may be added to make the ink more durable once dried. India ink is commonly sold in bottled form, as well as a solid form as an inkstick most commonly, a stick , which must be ground and mixed with water before use. If a binder is used, India ink may be waterproof or non-waterproof.
Woods and Woods state that the process of making India ink was known in China as early as the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, in Neolithic China ,  whereas Needham states that inkmaking commenced perhaps as early as three millennia ago in China. India ink has been in use in India since at least the 4th century BC, where it was called masi , an admixture of several substances.
The traditional Chinese method of making ink was to grind a mixture of hide glue , carbon black , lampblack, and bone black pigment with a mortar and pestle , then pour it into a ceramic dish where it could dry. Like Chinese black inks, the black inks of the Greeks and Romans were also stored in solid form before being ground and mixed with water for usage.
AGE OF SIGNATURE/INK – Anil Gupta Forensic Service
Authorities in India have ramped up efforts to curb the spread of coronavirus, closing key tourist sites and even stamping people with the dates they should remain quarantined to avoid infecting others. A security official checks the temperature of a visitor as a precaution against the new coronavirus at the Parliament House in New Delhi, India, Tuesday, March 17, The branding on wrists of those stamped by officials displays the date that their personal quarantine ends.
Indian passengers wearing masks as a precaution against the new coronavirus wait at railway station in Jammu, India, Tuesday, March 17, The state of Maharashtra, where Mumbai is located, has been the hardest hit in India with 39 confirmed coronavirus cases, or roughly a quarter of the cases in the country. Indian authorities have justified their strict testing limits as a way to keep a deluge of people from demanding tests that would cost the government money it needs to combat other diseases.
There are three approaches for ink dating: The first approach is the India. TABLE 2. Description of different chemicals used. No. Chemicals.
IFS is Govt. Act, ; UNI. MSYS ; also Regd. Court to examine various Documents, Handwriting and Signatures. We regularly receives cases from court, police and government departments. We also accept cases from private, public and individual clients. We have solved many cases and given expert opinions to many Govt. Agencies etc , Semi-Govt. Forensic science is the use of advanced scientific techniques during criminal and civil investigations.
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Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates.
Hardy Diagnostics India Ink is recommended for use in the identification of The expiration dating on the product label applies to the product in its intact.
Yes, with certain limitations. We can determine the first date of commercial availability of the ink used to prepare any handwritten or handprinted material. The type of ink does not preclude this examination. If the initial date of commercial availability is more recent than the supposed date of the examined writing, then the document is not what it purports.
We cannot, however, through this technique, determine the specific or even approximate date of preparation. Other techniques can determine the approximate date of preparation of handwritten entries. Additionally, it is possible to measure the quantity of several semi- volatile components that are present in ink. As the ink ages these components decrease and thus the approximate age of the writing can be determined.
Not to the same degree as handwritten documents or signatures. It is not possible to determine commercial availability of these materials with the same degree of certainty as was possible with writing ink. It is, however, often possible to ascertain enough information to provide a list of possible sources and thus a range of commercial availability dates. The ability to further examine these materials, as was described previously, does not exist to the same degree.
It is possible to examine xerographically produced materials and determine the extent to which they have been exposed to environmental conditions.
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Justice Potdar directed the magistrate’s court to refer the disputed cheque to an expert “to determine the age of the ink used for signature so.
Know more. Load More. The brief facts leading to filing of this rev Therefore, the revision petitioners have filed I. The expert has given his opinion on the documents without any opinion as to the age of the ink used in the documents Exs. As observed by the Apex Court, in the above If point No. Thus, from the above, it is clear that there is an organization called Nutron Activation Analysis In a given case, the ink , or for that matter, the pen, may have It is observed that when the dispute as to the tampering with antedate and determination It also referred the expression of Kambala supra where observed mere determination of age of ink , even there exists any facility for that purpose; cannot, by it Kartar Singh held that age of the ink cannot be dete
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But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one. Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used.
Until now, document dating methods have been able to indicate whether the writing was relatively new less than 90 days or older over two years , yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones. Each document was produced at different moments using a different ink stroke pressure, factors that may alter the results and lead to dating errors.
During the natural ageing process of each sample, which had a known age, the research team analysed the evolution in the various volatile components.
Please select; View all; Ink Consumables; Laser Consumables; Ink Ribbons; Commercial Equipment Ink Consumables. Include discontinued products in the.
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Indian Date synonyms, Indian Date pronunciation, Indian Date translation, English dictionary definition of Indian Date. n. 1. A tropical evergreen tree of the pea.
There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i.
There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools. The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document. The pinholes themselves are not typically easily visible unless the document is held up to light, and the testing has no negative effect on handwriting analysis.
All of the proposed testing follows Court approved testing methods, e. Under appropriate circumstances, the Court may order destructive testing of all or some portion of the physical item in question. Douglas E. Barnhart, Inc. Inks appearing on questioned documents may be examined for the purpose of comparing with other inks on the same document, with ink on other documents or even with ink in seized pens.
Sequence of entry can sometimes be determined. Questions regarding manufacturer, pen, pen type, ink age, backdating, fraud and forgery can often be answered by Larry Stewart, Global Forensic Services, LLC.
Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination
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